For centuries Europeans used the term "Turkey" when referring to the Ottoman Empire, and "Turk" with reference to Ottoman subjects. Yet it was only in 1923 that the Republic of Turkey was established, and only since then have the country's people begun to refer to themselves as "Turks." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, famous founding President of Turkey, once proclaimed, "How happy to call oneself a Turk!" In this course we will explore just what it has meant to "call oneself a Turk" over the past century. We will examine the origins and history of modern Turkey, considering not just political history but also social, cultural and economic history.